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Plant Manual for Casina Filbert Hazelnut

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Plant Description

One of the heaviest-producing filbert/hazelnut trees. This productive tree bears crops of round, thin-shelled nuts with 50% more meat than other varieties. The nut is heart-healthy and high in monounsaturated fat. Bears in 6-8 years. Matures to be 15-18' tall. Ripens in late summer. Grafted. Best pollinator: Barcelona Filbert/Hazelnut. Available for spring shipping only, so order now!

Planting

Successfully establishing a young nut tree in your yard starts with your planting site and method. Once a tree is established, it needs little assistance to grow and produce; but you’ll want to make sure you give your tree the best foundation possible.

Nut trees require fertile soil for good growth, so before you plant, check your soil nutrients and pH. Contact your local County Extension Office for information about soil testing in your area, or purchase one of our digital meters for quick and accurate results. For hazelnuts, your ideal soil pH should be 6.0-7.0. Steer clear of soils that are extremely heavy or poorly drained.

Planting

  • Space your hazelnut trees 15’ to 18’ apart.
  • Wet roots thoroughly before planting.
  • Dig a hole wide and deep enough to accommodate the “J” type root system.
  • Plant 12” above the base of the “J” loop. This type of root tends to grow near the surface.
  • Refill hole with enhanced soil. Tamp soil firmly about roots as you add each shovel of dirt.
  • When hole is ¾ full, add two gallons of water, the last gallon should be treated with Stark® Tre-Pep® Fertilizer and let soak in. (If planting in the fall, consider waiting to fertilize until spring for best results.)
  • Finish filling hole.

After Planting

  • Prune your new bare root tree to a viable bud eye. This is essential. This forces your tree to grow a strong sprout that will become the main trunk. Take our word for it: pruning at planting time gets your new tree off to the best possible start. Potted nut trees do not need pruning.
  • Paint trunk with a white latex paint and/or wrap trunk within 4” of top using Stark® Tree Guards to prevent rodent injury and sun scald.
  • Mulch about June 1. Keep all weeds away from trees the first few years with mulch or regular cultivation.

Additional Notes

  • Hazelnut trees need another tree of the same species for pollination. Pollinator variety should not be more than 100 to 200 feet from the variety it needs to pollinate.
  • These trees are also called cob, cobnut, Pontic nut, Lombardy nut and Spanish nut.
  • Hazelnut trees, also known as filberts, should not be planted too deep. Hazelnuts have a “J” type root and they tend to grow near the surface, unlike fruit trees.

Fertilizing

Fertilize your tree in the spring with a well-balanced fertilizer. Sprinkle the fertilizer at the drip line of the tree.

Insects and Diseases

Every tree has the future potential for disease and insect damage. Factors such as location and weather will play a part in which issues your tree encounters. If available, disease-resistant trees are the best option for easy care; and for all trees, proper maintenance (such as watering, fertilizing, pruning, spraying, weeding, and fall cleanup) can help keep most insects and diseases at bay.

Leaf Spot

Purple spots on leaves. May or may not have gray centers. Can be round but also fan-shaped. Can cause leaf curl. Many fungi cause spots and affect different varieties differently.

Natural Control

  • Serenade® Garden Disease Control

Leafroller

Pale yellow or ‘dirty’ green worms. Leaves are rolled and webbed together where insects feed. Eventually becoming skeletonized.

Natural Control

  • Bonide® Thuricide® Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT)

Powdery Mildew

Whitish-gray powdery mold or felt like patches on leaves or nuts. Leaves may fall off early, nuts may have split shucks and shriveled kernels. Disease hits so late in season, control often not needed.

Natural Control

  • Serenade® Garden Disease Control
  • Bonide® Citrus, Fruit & Nut Orchard Spray

Aphids

They are the size of a pinhead and vary in color depending on the species. Cluster on stems and under leaves, sucking plant juices. Leaves then curl, thicken, yellow and die. Produce large amounts of a liquid waste called “honeydew”. Aphid sticky residue becomes growth media for sooty mold.

Natural Control

  • Bonide® Citrus, Fruit & Nut Orchard Spray

Leaf Scorch

Appears as a yellowing or darkening of the leaf between the main veins or along the edges of the leaf. Trees that develop leaf scorch may lose many leaves during the summer months.

Natural Control

  • Adequate fertilizing and watering can help clear up sever cases of leaf scorch.

Other Control Options

  • Consult County Extension Agent

Eastern Filbert Blight

Fungal disease spread by the wind. Oval shaped black sores after extended periods of cold weather. Tree could die within 5 to 12 years if no action is taken to clear up the infection.

Natural Control

  • Infected branches should be cut a little less than a yard below the edge of where the sores appear. The fungus can continue to grow even after the branch is cut so they should be burned or chipped after removal.

Chemical Control

  • Bonide® Fung-onil™ Fungicide

Canker

Dead portions of bark or branches, can lead to wood decay that makes the tree susceptible to damage from wind and snow. Dead portions of bark are also prime sites for wood rotting insects to invade.

Natural Control

  • Watering and pruning regularly can avoid cankers.
  • Protecting the tree from lawn equipment and vehicles will also help reduce the risk of cankers that form because of injury to wood.

Other Control Options

  • Consult County Extension Agent

Sooty Mold

Caused by black fungus that invades the leaves, branches and nuts. Mold spores stick to honeydew left behind on trees by aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies.

Natural Control

  • Wash the fungus off

Other Control Options

  • Consult County Extension Agent

Hazelnut Mosiac

Abnormal ring spot, line patterns and flecking on older leave.

Control

  • Consult County Extension Agent

Tent Caterpillars

Hairy caterpillars that enclose large areas in webbing and feed on enclosed leaves. Remove web with rake and burn. Caterpillars are pulled out with webs.

Natural Control

  • Bonide® Thuricide® Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT)

Chemical Control

  • Bonide® Total Pest Control

Filbertworm

Small moth with coloring of bronze, coppery or reddish brown, larvae is light brown to whitish. Larvae feed on the nut kernels.

Control

  • Consult County Extension Agent

Pruning

Pruning is an important part of maintaining your hazelnut tree, but many people find the task overwhelming. It doesn’t have to be! You can have confidence in knowing that not everyone will prune the exact same way (even the experts).

Keep these pointers in mind:

  • Remove all branches but three to five main scaffold branches during the first winter.
  • Choose three to five strong, healthy branches, equally spaced around the tree.
  • The second season, prune any branches that appear to be competing with the scaffolding branches.
  • In the early years, if secondary limbs show narrow angles, you should remove them.
  • When the tree is dormant, corrective pruning consists of removing broken, interfering, dead, or disease branches.
  • If any branches are crossing, remove one of them.
  • Prune low limbs that may interfere with sprays or irrigation.
  • Remove limbs and vigorous shoots growing through the center, to allow light and air to penetrate.

Spraying

Spraying is important to the survival of your trees. To handle potential diseases and pests, reference the guidelines below to know what you should spray, and when you should use it.

Before you begin, read and follow all instructions on labels.

When To Spray

At the First Sign of:

  • Serenade® Garden Disease Control for leaf spot, powdery mildew and more.
  • Bonide® Total Pest Control for tent caterpillars.
  • Bonide® Citrus, Fruit & Nut Orchard Spray for powdery mildew and aphids.
  • Bonide® Thuricide® Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT) for tent caterpillar and leafroller.

Leaf Bud Break

  • Bonide® Fung-onil™ Fungicide for eastern filbert blight.

Watering

Except in times of drought, you probably won’t need to water after your tree is established. Until then, follow these guidelines to get your new trees off to a great start.

General Guidelines

  • If summer brings about an inch of rainfall every 10 days or so, you won’t need to use the hose. But if it gets really dry, you can give your new tree a good, thorough soaking. The best way to do this is to let your garden hose trickle slowly. This gives the water a chance to soak in instead of running off. You can also use a soaker hose to water several trees at once. Give your tree enough water to soak the ground all around the roots.

Harvesting

Are you ready to enjoy delicious homegrown nuts? Harvest is the time to enjoy the results of your hard work. Keep a few things in consideration as you reap the the benefits of your labor: the best time to pick nuts from your tree, and how to store the nuts.

When to Harvest

Harvest hazelnuts from late August through October when they have fallen from the trees. Hazelnut bushes will usually produce their first nuts in their fourth year, though they will not come into full nut production until year nine or later. Nuts should be harvested just as soon as they become loose in their husks to avoid losses to animal predation. In some plants this may occur when the husks are still green and moist, whereas in others it may not be until they are brown and dry. In general, if the clusters can be pulled from the bushes easily they are ready to harvest.

If husks were still green and moist at harvest time, to avoid predation by squirrels, they need to post-ripen for a week or two in conditions of high humidity but with adequate light and air circulation. If the husks were starting to turn brown at harvest time they should be allowed to dry completely by spreading them out in a well-ventilated (but mouse-proof) location, hanging them in mesh onion bags, until completely dry.

Storage

Hazelnuts will keep for about a year in your refrigerator if stored in an airtight container or freeze some for later use.


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Bare-root Trees

Trees that are shipped without soil to ensure good contact with soil in your yard. When shipped, they are about 3-4' tall with 3/8" or larger trunk diameter. When they mature, they will be one of three sizes*:

Dwarf

Matures to be about 8-10' tall and wide. Provides an abundance of full-size fruit.

Semi-Dwarf

Matures to be about 12-15' tall and wide. Gives maximum fruit yield per square foot.

Standard

Matures to be about 15-25' tall and 20' wide. A multi-purpose fruit and shade tree.

Stark Supreme Tree®

Top-grade, bare-root trees that give you a head start on growing. When shipped, they are about 4-5' tall with 5/8" or larger trunk diameter.

EZ Start® Potted Trees

Trees in bottomless pots that allow some roots to be air pruned, so that a dense mass of productive, feeder roots can grow within the pot to make transplanting easier. Mature sizes vary. When shipped, they are about 1-2' tall.

Select EZ Start® Potted Trees

Top-grade, potted trees chosen to give you a head start on growing. When shipped to you, they are about 3-4' tall.

*Tree sizes may vary by variety. See our Growing Guide for details.